Deep Blue vs. Garry Kasparov
In 1996 and 1997, two six-game chess matches were held between then reigning world chess champion Garry Kasparov and Deep Blue, a chess-playing program run on an IBM supercomputer. Deep Blue won the match and triggered yet another debate about “what do we really mean by ‘intelligence?’” Deep Blue was programmed long before the current revolution of self-trained neural networks and depended on an extensive set of rules given to it by a team of chess experts. Modern techniques using neural networks require far less human training and intervention, and produce better results.

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Deep Blue vs. Garry Kasparov, 1996