20 OBJECTS OF WONDER
The 20 Objects of Wonder selected for The Imitation Game offer a unique, chronological insight into the history of artificial intelligence (AI), including the critical advances that have shaped its present configuration, and those that point the way toward its future uses. Seen together, these many images, objects and events reveal the breadth and depth of influence exerted by AI on visual culture.
Early advances in AI laid the foundations for an intimate relationship between humans and machines, and many of the early theorists and researchers actively speculated on fundamental questions of consciousness, creativity and intelligence.
The exponential growth of computer processing capacity in the past twenty years has rapidly accelerated AI research, and widely distributed its use across all fields of human endeavour. The increased availability of moderately priced computers and sophisticated programs with accessible interfaces has further expanded the reach of AI-assisted thinking and making, so that today it is reasonable to say that AI is a critical component of any creative practice.
From Norbert Wiener’s cybernetic moth (1949) to Neri Oxman’s Synthetic Apiary (2020), the evolution of AI is marked by a deep and abiding commitment to research, experimentation and creativity.
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Norbert Wiener’s “Moth” has a place in a long history of mechanical animals that were used to describe advances in technology and design.
Alan Turing’s “Imitation Game,” or the Turing Test as it was later called, affirms the human mind as the ideal model for the formulation of a thinking machine.
Stanley Kubrick conceived of an AI that had achieved a consciousness which closely resembled that of humans—recognizing within this a very real likelihood of fallibility.
This exhibition at the ICA, London, explored the potential for advanced technologies to enable new modes of creativity.
Using the basic principles of cybernetics theory, Stafford Beer devised a plan to enable a dynamic, socialist-driven transformation of the Chilean economy.
The video game SimCity is a city simulator based in part on theories of urban dynamics developed by Jay Forrester in the 1960s.
In 1987, Craig Reynolds introduced “boids,” a program that simulates complex flocking motions and produces convincing autonomous agents.
Muriel Cooper broke the flat space of conventional graphic design and replaced it with a new interface that had depth and movement, and was responsive to input.
Bina48 is a social robot designed to act as a conscious analog—embodying the memories, feelings, values and beliefs—of Bina Rothblatt.
ImageNet is a database that has played a pivotal role in the development of global AI systems that identify, classify and create images.
AlphaGo underwent rigorous training using deep neural networks and reinforcement learning, but none of this prepared its trainers for Move 37 in Game 2.
GAN (or Generative Adversarial Network) is a class of machine learning techniques that pits two neural networks against each other for training purposes.
In the summer of 2018, artist/ programmer Robbie Barrat wrote a short post to his Twitter feed: “I’m doing something with fashion and AI but I don’t know what yet.”
Zaha Hadid was first among a cohort of international architects who actively embraced the tools of parametric design.
Through a combination of art, research, policy guidance and media advocacy, the AJL is leading a cultural movement towards equitable and accountable AI.
In this survey of AI in animation, we have used a broad definition of AI to present a wide variety of approaches, including: neural network techniques, computer simulation of materials, algorithmic animation, and autonomous agents.
Neri Oxman’s goal is simple and direct—she seeks to demonstrate how new technologies can inform the future of design and the making of objects.
New model smartphones are designed to run AI software (particularly neural networks) very quickly and efficiently, turning them into powerful and specialized AI computers.
MetaHuman Creator, a new animation design tool developed by Epic Games, brings us closer to the creation of characters that can fool us into believing that they are real.
Face recognition software is among the most controversial applications of AI. And emotion recognition is an actively growing application of that technology.