Frank Gehry, Toyo Ito and Rem Koolhaas
Frank Gehry’s fascination with materials and flowing surfaces requires an intensive computational process to transform his simple models in cardboard or wood into fluid and gleaming architectural forms like the Walt Disney Concert Hall. Gehry’s studio played a key role in customizing the CATIA 3D modelling software used in the aerospace industry for architectural applications.

Toyo Ito’s design for the Serpentine Gallery Pavilion was derived from a cube that expanded as it was rotated. The fragmented shapes that arise from seven iterations of this parametrically determined process of rotation and extrusion form the external structure of the Pavilion.

Rem Koolhaas and OMA’s CCTV building in Beijing achieves its uncanny presence through the principles of parametric design. Its confounding form was produced through a process of design optimization that balanced the architects’ conceptual and aesthetic goals with engineering and fabrication needs.

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Frank Gehry, Gehry Partners, Walt Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles, 2003 

Toyo Ito and Cecil Balmond with Arup, Serpentine Gallery Pavilion, 2002, Photo: Sylvain Deleu

Rem Koolhaas, Office for Metropolitan Architecture (OMA), with Arup, China Central Television Building, Beijing, 2012